The European Union has set its sights on industry heavyweights such as Apple, Amazon, Microsoft, Alphabet (Google’s parent company), Meta (formerly Facebook), and ByteDance (the company behind TikTok). Under the newly enacted Digital Markets Act, the EU has established a comprehensive set of rules, effectively designating these tech giants as “online gatekeepers.” This landmark legislation requires tech behemoths to adhere to strict regulations, backed by the threat of substantial fines or even the possibility of business breakup if they fail to comply.
The Digital Markets Act’s primary objective is to prevent these companies from monopolizing online markets through their core platform services, including Chrome, Windows, WhatsApp, TikTok, Amazon’s Marketplace, and Apple’s App Store, as well as their roles as intermediaries. European Commissioner Thierry Breton has emphasized that these measures are aimed at promoting consumer choice, reducing barriers for smaller competitors, and, in his words, “opening the gates to the Internet.”
Under the newly enacted law, these tech giants have a six-month grace period to begin aligning themselves with the provisions of the Digital Markets Act. Some companies have already started making changes to their practices in response to the impending regulations. Google, for instance, has announced plans to modify its products and services, while Amazon has taken the initiative to offer European consumers visible alternatives through the introduction of a second “buy box” option, featuring different prices or delivery offers.
One key aspect of the Digital Markets Act is the prohibition on tech companies locking in customers or preventing users from connecting with businesses outside their platforms. Apple, in particular, has begun to relax its longstanding restrictions in response to objections from companies like Epic Games and Spotify, who have complained about Apple’s fees and subscription policies. As a result, messaging services such as Telegram, Signal, and WhatsApp can now be interoperable rather than siloed. Additionally, platforms are barred from prioritizing their own content over external providers, addressing the issue exemplified by Amazon’s “buy box” system.
Furthermore, essential software and apps can no longer be pre-installed by default, eliminating practices such as Google bundling Chrome with Android phones. Companies found in violation of these regulations may face fines of up to 10% of their global revenue, with repeat offenders potentially facing penalties of up to 20%, or even the break-up of their businesses.
While Meta and Amazon have welcomed the EU’s decision, TikTok has expressed strong disagreement with the move, contending that the app has brought more choice to an industry with numerous incumbents. Nevertheless, the EU’s Digital Markets Act represents a significant step toward providing consumers with greater options and fostering competition in the ever-expanding tech landscape.
This legislation is part of a broader effort to establish a comprehensive digital rulebook, coinciding with the recent implementation of the Digital Services Act. Together, these acts aim to ensure the safety and service quality for internet users across Europe. As Big Tech adapts to conform to these new digital requirements, one thing is clear: the European Union’s Digital Markets Act leaves no room for tech giants to avoid complying with the EU’s rules and regulations.